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  • Stephen Knight

The Art of Illumination

Updated: Mar 24

Whilst most light painters tend to create drawings or light trails, another popular genre of light painting photography is illumination. This involves adding artificial light to long exposure night scenes, or other dark locations.

Static Illumination from Flashlights with Diffusers
Static Illumination from Flashlights with Diffusers

Camera Equipment

Ideally you need an interchangeable lens camera (DSLR or Mirrorless) that is capable of Bulb (>30 second long) exposures. Modern M4/3 and APS-C cameras have sufficient image quality for the vast majority of low lighting conditions. However if you are adding artificial light to a high-ISO astro scenes then most Full Frame sensor cameras will provide a useful extra stop of high ISO ability and dynamic range. One of the more important camera features to me is either a Infra Red (IR) remote control, or ability to plug in a Radio Frequency (RF) remote control. Be careful, some entry level and even mid-range cameras do not have these options, relying on Bluetooth control from mobile phones which are more of an annoyance than assistance.

Whilst with light drawing, you can easily use kit lenses, with illumination there may be more of a requirement for faster apertures, particularly if you are combining illumination with astrophotography or portraits. Whilst I usually use f/5.6 to f/11, there have been a few times I've required f/2.8, or even f/1.8. I commonly use focal lengths between 13mm to 27mm (9mm to 18mm APS-C). Lens features that I do look for are good flare resistance, ability to produce sunstars/starbursts, and low distortion (or at least easily correctable in post processing).

Other bits of equipment you will need are a tripod (plus a second tripod if you are using backlighting), and remote control. Tripods should have good range of height and have adjustable legs to allow stability on sloping or un-even ground. You need either an IR or RF wireless remote control. I personally use an IR remote control, but you do need line of sight with the camera and range may be limited to around 10m. RF remote controls may allow for more distant control. Most remotes should be able to start a Bulb exposure with one press, and stop the exposure with the second press.

Once you have decided upon your location, composition, and lighting techniques, you need to set up your camera and tripod. Set the expected aperture, ISO, and exposure time settings. These will be considerably different depending on the illumination types explained later in this article.

Some light painters also recommend adding glow-in-the-dark tape to their tripod feet so that they don't trip over the legs or knock over the tripod. You will then need to focus the lens at, or close to the area that needs to be fully in focus. There are a few ways you can do this. Either temporarily illuminate the scene with a flashlight or headlamp, auto-focus on the required location, then switch to manual focus. Alternatively, if you have a mirrorless camera, illuminate the scene, switch to manual focus, and use focus peaking and/or focus magnification to assist with focusing. You may need to turn on a setting to active remote shutter control, and if you need to set a delay timer, you will need to set that as well.

Lighting Basics

White Light Overview

Understanding the basic principles of white light is critical to good illumination. Correlated colour temperature (CCT), tint, and colour rendering index (CRI) will all affect the outcome of your photo.

Correlated Colour Temperature (CCT)

CCT can vary between "orange like" warm white at 2000k through to a "blue like" very cool white at 7000k. Sunset sunlight is 2700k, and midday daylight is 5600k. Many light painters, including myself, like to contrast warm white 2700k and cool white 5700-6500k light in photos. More on CRI later.

RGBWW LED panel lights and COB video lights usually have adjustable CCT (called bi-color) between at least 3200K and 5600K, often wider.

Most flashlights have a fixed CCT of 6500k, as cool white LEDs are more efficient. Some companies such as Convoy, and Emisar/Noctigon make flashlights with multiple CCT options between 1800k and 6500k.


Ideally, the LED emitter will sit close to the Black Body Line (BBL), and have minimal Green (+ve DUV) or Magenta (-ve DUV) tint.

RGBWW panel lights and RGB COB video lights usually allow for green to magenta tint adjustment. This can also allow for cinematic use of extreme tints, such a "creepy" greens.

Flashlights with Nichia 519A, 719A, B35AM, and Getian GT-FC40 LEDs are both high-CRI and sit close to the BBL, with a pleasent "neutral" tint when illuminating objects. Most tint related issues are usually minor for photography and can be eliminated by adjusting the tint slider in post-processing. However, I would avoid some LEDs notorious for +ve DUV such as the SST-20.

Variations to CCT can make for significant differences in the resulting photo.
Variations to CCT and DUV can make for significant differences in the resulting photo.

Colour Rendering Index (CRI)

High CRI lights have a more daylight spectrum of white light, with all colours including reds (R9) rendered well.

Most LED panel lights and COB video lights will be >95 CRI / R9080, which will render colours much better than even household lightbulbs which are only 80 to 90 CRI.

High CRI flashlights were a rarity until the last few years, with commonly used <70 CRI flashlights resulting in "washed out" beams of light. Options for high CRI lights include some flashlights from Convoy, Emisar/Noctigon, Skilhunt, and Acebeam with Nichia 519A, 719A, B35AM, or Getian GT-FC40 LEDs.

Warm and cool white, high-CRI lighting.
Warm 2700k and cool white 5700k, high-CRI lighting

Coloured Light

Coloured lighting for illumination should ideally be used in a subtle manner so as to avoid the photo looking like clown vomit. I prefer photos where a single colour is contrasted against cool white light, or good of use of colour theory is utilised when selecting colours. There are two options for creating coloured light - using a white light light source with colour filters, or using a light source with colour LEDs.

Most RGBWW panel lights and RGB COB lights allow for Hue, Saturation, and Intensity (HSI) adjustment. This allows for fine adjustment of brightness, colour hue, and saturation. Lowering the saturation below 100% gradually introduces more white light white, which avoids oversaturated monochromatic colour for a more "gel like" look.

There are currently no flashlights with HSI colour mixing. Most RGB flashlights produce monochromatic colour, which can rapidly saturate the camera sensor. The Ants On A Melon RGB Critter can colour mix 39 colours, but all at 100% saturation. There are a few full spectrum colour emitters such as the Osram CSLNM1.F1 green and .FY orange-yellow in various lights made by Convoy. Light Painting Paradise sell some useful colour filters. Otherwise, you can use white light with colour LEE or Rosco filters/gels, which can be placed in front of the light source. This will of course reduce the flashlight's brightness.

Inverse Square Law

An important behaviour of light (from a point source) is that light intensity falls off 4x with each doubling of distance. Thus if you are illuminating an object from 5m away, then to illuminate that object at the same brightness (illuminance) from 10m away, you would need 4x the brightness. Alternatively you can increase your camera exposure by 2 stops to compensate.

Light Sources

Whilst any flashlight/torch or light source can illuminate a scene. Some do it much better than others. I would recommending having a look at the illumination section in my Best Flashlights for Light Painting Photography article. Things to look out for are good sustained brightness, high colour rendering (high-CRI), tripod mount options, diffuser compatibility, lots of brightness steps, and last mode memory.

LED panel lights, COB video lights (open face), LED cube lights, and flashlights with diffusers or on lower brightness settings are generally better for nearfield illumination. Flashlights and COB video lights (with reflector) are generally better for medium distance illumination. "Throwy" flashlights, and in rare cases, LEPs, are the best option for longer distance illumination.

It is important to remember that most flashlights automatically step-down from their maximum advertised brightness over time due to heat, sometimes in just 10 seconds! Thus you need to the use the flashlight at a brightness where it will remain stable during your exposure and any possible subsequent exposures. Unfortunately, some flashlight manufacturers are less than transparent with this data. Flashlight enthusiast reviews are the best source of this information. Non-flashlight light sources such as LED panel lights and COB video lights can sustain maximum brightness.

As well as flashlights / torches, LED panels, and COB video lights, there are also LED cube lights, LED light bars, headlamps, candles, LED tea lights, flash / strobe, or camping lanterns.

Types of Illumination

Static Light Source

Static illumination is where the lighting does not move throughout the photographic exposure. In most cases the lighting is on throughout the entire exposure, though if the light can be controlled remotely (such as some LED panel lights or off-camera flash) it may be possible to turn it on and off during the exposure. Static lighting is often used for night landscape illumination, low level landscape lighting, and urbex photography. You can use a headlamp for safety as you move around the scene setting up the lighting (just remember to turn it off before you start the exposure).

If you want to create a hard-edged light beam (such as a "creepy" beam of light coming through a slightly open door) you are best using a flashlight / torch or COB video light with reflector. The light may need to be mounted on a tripod, or mini-tripod.

Flashlights usually produce a hard edged beam with hotspot.
Flashlights usually produce a hard edged beam with hotspot.

If you want to create a softer and floodier, almost 180 degree light beam with no hotspot then I would recommend using something like a LED panel light or COB video light (open face). For low level landscape lighting (illuminating a night landscape with astrophotography background), the light source will need to be capable of very low brightness settings.

Very floody beam from an LED panel light.
Very floody beam from an LED panel light.

If you are requiring omni-directional light (like a lightbulb), I would recommend a flashlight and diffuser, or LED panel light with dome diffuser. My preferred flashlight for Urbex photography is the Convoy S21E 519A as it has 95CRI, choice of 7 CCTs, and 5 well spaced brightness levels. Camping lanterns are an alternative but may have limitations with how they spread light. LED Tea Lights also make a useful addition to some scenes, and they can be purchased in large multi-packs very cheaply.

Flashlight with diffuser.
Flashlight with diffuser.

As previously mentioned, for static lighting you need to the use the flashlight at a brightness where it will remain stable during your exposure and any possible subsequent exposures. For example, I use the Convoy S21E on 40% mode or less for static lighting where I know it will be stable.

Camera exposure will depend on the scene, choice of light source, and light source brightness. I will typically try and use the optimal aperture for sharpness (unless I need to render a starburst/sunstar from a light source), as low ISO as possible, and a exposure time long enough for adequate, but not over-exposed illumination (usually this is a set time <30secs and not Bulb). If you are illuminating a night landscape as part of an astrophotography scene, then you need to expose the night sky correctly, and lower your light source brightness to avoid any over-exposure of the foreground.


Backlighting is commonly used by light painting photographers, and involves a model (usually the light painter or friend) blocking the light beam from a flashlight/torch or off-camera flash, creating a shadow towards the camera. This is also known as a still-houette as the model has to keep perfectly for a few seconds. This is best performed with a flashlight or off-camera flash mounted on a tripod, though it can be handheld if you have an extra person. As per the previous section, the flashlight needs to be at a brightness setting where it will have stable sustained brightness. Some experimentation of light to camera distance, and light to model distance can be useful. I personally try and keep exposure times short so prefer to use 1-2secs, f/5.6-8, and ISO400 (which is my camera's second noise floor). If I'm on my own, I will use a 10 second timer to run into position. Flashlight brightness may vary between 150lm in a narrow tunnel to 3,000lm in a forest. My favorourite flashlight for backlighting is the Olight Marauder Mini which sustains 3,000 lumens on 6/7 mode. Portable COB video lights such as the SmallRig RC 60B are also now a viable option for backlighting.

If the model has a light source such as a headlamp in front of them, the light from the headlamp can fill in the shadows, as per the below example. Other lighting elements can also be added as required.

Backlighting in a Tunnel.
Backlighting in a Tunnel

I also use a reverse backlight technique for when I don't want to bring a second tripod. This involved facing away from the camera, and holding at arms length two flashlights in front of me, one pointing away from the camera to illuminate the scene, and a second pointing towards the camera with a diffuser to backlight myself (and create the shadow from my legs).

It is also possible to backlight locations such as tunnels to create interesting contrast and textures. In this case, the light source will not be blocked and thus a starburst/sunstar will appear on the image if the light source has a single LED. It is thus best to use smaller apertures of around f/11-16, with resulting increase in either ISO or exposure time.

Reverse Backlighting in a Winter Wonderland.
Reverse Backlighting in a Winter Wonderland

Backlight Scanners

Backlight Scanners (BLS) were invented by Light Painter Pala Teth. These are used as a moving light source, where the light painter can walk towards the camera during a long exposure, illuminating the scene with a conical beam of light, which is invisible to the camera. This requires the light painter to cover all skin with black clothing to avoid being illuminated by back-scattered light. Care is required to watch where you are stepping whilst aiming the BLS at the camera. I place an LED Tea light on top of the camera so that I know where it is in the dark. It is possible to make a home-made BLS, and a few commercial options are also available. I use a BLS made by Lace Light Photos, combined with a 1,500lm high-CRI Convoy S12 219C torch (though the newer 2,000lm Convoy S21D 519A is a better choice). I typically use an exposure of f/8, ISO400, and Bulb exposure time as required.

Backlight Scanner
Backlight Scanner
Scene Illuminated with a Backlight Scanner.
Scene Illuminated with a Backlight Scanner

Moving Light Source

A popular way of illuminating dark scenes is to use a moving light source. Either the light painter can remain in the same location, but move around the flashlight's light beam, or the light painter may also need to be walking around whilst illuminating the scene. The light does not need to be on for the entire photographic exposure. LED Panel lights or even off-camera flashes can be used as well.

It is possible to do this by staying out of the camera's field of view. However in some instances, the light painter may need to be within the camera's field of view. Tips to avoid making yourself and the light source visible in the photo include always pointing the light source at more than a 90 degree angle away from the camera, using a black card to hide the flashlight if it needs to be at a less than 90 degree angle away from the camera, and making sure you are not in-between the camera and what you are illuminating at any point in time.

Flashlights/torches are usually the best option for moving light sources, though headlamps, LED panels, COB video lights, LED scanners/light bars. and cube lights may also be useful. You don't usually need crazy lumens, I've illuminated an entire castle with cool and warm white 800 lumen flashlights, at f/8, ISO200, and Bulb exposure. Again, you need to be aware of how quickly your flashlight steps-down from maximum brightness, and if the brightness is likely to reduce during your exposure, then use a lower brightness mode. It also helps to use a flashlight with mode memory so that it turns on in the previously used brightness setting. I would recommend using high-CRI lights, preferably with choice of colour temperatures, and options for adding colour filters. Again, the Convoy S21E 519A range is my favourite light for this purpose. If you are trying to combine astrophotography with moving illumination, you will need to use a low brightness setting from the light source.

Some light painters prefer to use zoom lights, as there is more fine control over beam size. Ledlenser's latest generation of lights are excellent zoom lights, but they are also very expensive. The Convoy Z1 is a budget alternative. A Light Painting Brushes Universal Connector, or Light Painting Paradise Round Adapter can also be used to collimate the light beam, acting as a snoot.

The angle of the lighting is very important. If you illuminate from behind, or close to the camera, the resulting photo will lack contrast and look quite flat. It is better to illuminate from the side, or more parallel (instead of perpendicular) to surfaces to create more contrast.

If you are using colours for moving illumination, then you will usually get better coloured illumination by using colour filters on a white light flashlight, rather than colour LEDs which are usually monochromatic. Light Painting Paradise sell some useful colour filters. This reduces the chance of over-saturation. However, in some cases coloured LEDs may still be more practical. The Ants On A Melon RGB Critter 2.0 provides up to 39 colour options. RGB panel lights and RGB COB video lights usually have adjustable saturation which allows the saturation to be dialed down.

If you are moving around in the dark, please be aware of where you are stepping. I have fallen down many a rabbit hole, and a flight of steps, and that was just during one photographic exposure!

Scene Illuminated with Moving Lighting
Scene Illuminated with a Moving Light Source

Drone Lighting

In the last decade, aerial illumination from drone light painting has really taken off (no pun intended). In most cases the light trail is also visible during the exposure, unless the drone is higher than the camera's field of view. This aerial lighting creates midday like lighting angles, but with a night sky backdrop. As drones have a limited payload, then lumens to weight ratio is important, as are mounting options. The Lumecube 2.0 is still winning this market segment at the moment.


There are many different types of illumination, for long exposure light painting, night landscape photography, astrophotography, low level landscape lighting, and urban exploring. These may have very different requirements for the most optimal light source. Multiple light painting techniques may be required to produce the desired photo. Hopefully this article has helped to demystify how to illuminate light painting scenes.


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7 則留言

David Fryer
David Fryer

The Light Painting info you give is always very useful Stephen

Stephen Knight

Thank you for the appreciation!




This is concise, complete, detailed, & really well written material! Thanks a million🤩 I’m grateful for the info and your expertise!

May I reference your article in a presentation that I am giving to my local photog group in Nov.?

Stephen Knight

Thanks for the kind words. Please feel free to reference this article.


Bronx Eagle
Bronx Eagle

Brilliant. This really educated me in a way that nobody ever did before on all this lighting jazz. Thank you so so much! <3

Stephen Knight

Thank you for the appreciation!



Very thorough, and very generous of you to share. The image you include of your lighting is fantastic!! Bravo!


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